Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without suffering a single defeat. When he received the news, full of joy, he immediately sent a letter addressed to Aristotle to Athens, in which he took part and thanked the gods that his son was born in his time that of the philosopher Hope that one day he would become his disciple.
But the young Macedonian king simply slashed it with his sword and unraveling its ends. With Bessus out of the way, Alexander had full control of Persia. More fighting in Persia In September B. He planned to lead part of his forces back by land, while the rest in perhaps to ships under the command of Nearchus, a Cretan with naval experience, made a voyage of exploration along the Persian Gulf.
As in Egypt, the local priesthood was encouraged. Alexander's Death In the spring ofAlexander held a great victory celebration at Susa. Only the temples and the house of the poet Pindar were spared from destruction.
Peucestas, the new governor of Persisgave this policy full support to flatter Alexander; but most Macedonians saw it as a threat to their own privileged position. Alexander occupied Thessaly and declared to the local authorities that the people of Thessaly would remain forever free of taxes.
Nothing superfluous, Nothing frivolous, Nothing that would induce sensuality, Irritably and emotionally natural, this austerity apparently agreed with his character, and acquired a perfect mastery of himself and his actions.
It is now that he made what the ancient historians considered to be the greatest mistake of his life. Crossing the Hindu Kush northward over the Khawak Pass 11, feet [3, metres]Alexander brought his army, despite food shortages, to Drapsaca sometimes identified with modern Banu [Andarab], probably farther north at Qunduz ; outflanked, Bessus fled beyond the Oxus modern Amu Daryaand Alexander, marching west to Bactra-Zariaspa modern Balkh [ Wazirabad ] in Afghanistanappointed loyal satraps in Bactria and Aria.
Then in Alexander moved his forces east and the two kings met in battle at the city of Issus. If the gods had made me a king and a pirate of you, I would perhaps be better sovereign than you, whereas you would never be a skilful pirate without prejudice as I am.
He had not just returned to his kingdom when the rebellion of the Thebans, united with that of the Athenians, after the rumor of his death in Icaria, demanded a new and urgent battle to prevent the total coalition. After several weeks, he took the town and entered Egypt where he established the city that still bears his name: Significantly, however, it was Philip, and not Athens, who made the first overtures for peace, though all the military initiatives lay in his own hand.
Alexander was now the king of Persia, and he began to wear Persian royal clothing. He defeated the Thracians and Tribalians in series of battles and drove the rebels beyond the river.
Philip had made Macedonia, and now Macedonia and its kings made world history. The Thessalians and Greek allies were sent home; henceforward he was waging a purely personal war. Philip then married another woman, which forced Alexander and Olympias to flee Macedon. That same day, free from fabulous hopes, with nothing to bequeath to men except his miserable barrel, at almost ninety, Corinth also died in his unfortunate counterpart, the frowning philosopher Diogenes the Cynic.
Thank you for being so dedicated to the public. In Asia the Macedonian commanders who served Alexander fought each other for power. In a thanksgiving feast the Persians joined the Macedonians as forces of Alexander.
In his boyhood he saw the Macedonian kingdom disintegrating while his elder brothers Alexander II and Perdiccas III, who each reigned for a few years, strove unsuccessfully against insubordination of their regional vassal princes, intervention of the strong Greek city Thebesand invasion by the Illyrians of the northwest frontier.
It is important to note the number of Greeks on the both sides. In this crisis Philip showed a good sense of priorities by buying off his dangerous neighbours and, with a treaty, ceding Amphipolis to Athens.
But this well thought propaganda did not deceive the Greeks who were well aware that Philips's settlement in Greece was just a cloak for his future conquests.
As the Illyrians and Thracians lived mainly from plunder, he told them to look at the enemy line glittering in gold In fact Philip II had often remarked how proud he was to have Parmenio as his general.
Alexander's favorite tutor was Lysimachus. By winning this battle he had won the war. His real skill as a general can be seen, though dimly, in a manoeuvre of controlled retreat aimed at dislocating the advancing Greeks and creating gaps for the cavalry to strike.
Alexander prayed for unity between Macedonians and Persians and by breeding a new army of mixed blood he hoped to create a core of a new royal army which would be attached only to him. The apparently untidy record of his campaigns into Illyria or Thrace and of his interventions with diplomacy or arms or both in Thessaly, Euboeaand the Peloponnese, which might suggest that repetition is a sign of incompetence, seem better interpreted as the work of a strategist operating always on several fronts, often preferring diplomacy to war, limited objectives to the grandiose, the smaller risks to the greatest; especially never forgetting that there is always another day.
Both in Egypt and elsewhere in the Greek cities he received divine honours. During the trial of Philotas Alexander raised the question of the use of the ancient Macedonian language. Leaving Parmenio in Syria, Alexander advanced south without opposition until he reached Gaza on its high mound; there bitter resistance halted him for two months, and he sustained a serious shoulder wound during a sortie.In the first authoritative biography of Alexander the Great written for a general audience in a generation, classicist and historian Philip Freeman tells the remarkable life of the great conqueror.
A Murder in Macedon (Alexander the Great Mysteries, Book 1): Intrigue and murder in Ancient Greece Jun 11, In the Footsteps of Alexander: The King Who Conquered the Ancient World (Landscape History) Aug 1, by Miles Doleac.
Biography Subject. Alexander the Great. Brand. Alexander. Belcho USA. pricegems. Philip II reigned over Macedonia from to B.C.
He became the head of an empire that was expanded by his son and successor, Alexander the Great. Born in either or B.C., Philip II. Alexander the Great was a king of Macedonia who conquered an empire that stretched from the Balkans to modern-day Pakistan. Alexander was the son.
Alexander the Great Alexander of Macedon Biography. King of Macedonia and Conqueror of the Persian Empire. Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times.
Macedonia (/ ˌ m æ s ɪ ˈ d oʊ n i ə / (listen)) or Macedon (/ ˈ m æ s ɪ ˌ d ɒ n /; Greek: Μακεδονία, Makedonía), was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, which was followed by the .Download